Friday, 15 March 2013

《慈禧與德齡》京劇版(下)

其實這次演出最吸引我注意的,不是戲文,不是演員,也不是服裝、燈光和布景,而是音樂。

甫坐下,便瞥見舞臺前音樂池的樂師陣容,男的西裝畢挺,女的長裙曳地,手執小提琴、小號、大號等西洋樂器,還有一套定音鼓,又有指揮臺,設置儼然交響樂團一般,不由得心生疑惑。演出開始後,才知道西樂主要演奏過場音樂,演唱的鑼鼓和板式拍和仍由鼓板、胡琴、鑼鈸等傳統樂器領奏,提琴等西樂只是輔助。可是中樂那邊的樂師陣容,因圍板阻礙了視線而沒看得清楚。驟眼望去,似乎西樂師比中樂師稍多幾人。幾年前雛鳳重鳴演出《帝女花》時,音樂編排也是這般中西混合,但序幕和過場的西樂是預先錄音的,現場樂隊雖已採用小提琴等西洋樂器,音樂上仍按照中樂傳統拍和。

是次中、西樂混奏的優劣,我沒資格品評,只能說感覺尚好,至少做到流暢自然、主次分明,沒有格格不入之感。西樂沒有取代京劇應有的鼓板、胡琴等,尤其令人欣慰。樂隊的陣容,從使用的樂器到樂師的服飾等,均顯得一絲不苟,但為甚麼要這樣做?難道採用西樂元素才是嚴謹、認真、現代,沿襲傳統樂隊的配置,就是散漫、馬虎、落伍?如果我猜對了,這似乎隱然有點現代中國人(尤其是內地)對傳統文化缺乏自信的意味。這種自卑感,又源於清末因妄自尊大而遭受列強侵凌的歷史,正是戲文搬演的時代。看到戲臺上下這種微妙的連繫,難免浮想聯翩,不能自已。

中文大學音樂系余少華博士曾在一次講座中提到:清末民初以來,中國人對傳統文化信心盡失,音樂家大都留洋學習西樂,瞧不起中國傳統音樂;即使有人著力整理國樂古譜,仍有一些人覺得國樂落伍、粗糙,比不上西樂。這其實忽略了國樂本身的特色,而且這些特色,與西洋樂理並非完全相通;因此借用西樂概念解釋中國音樂,往往似是而非,造成不少誤解,甚至錯訛。

早前有關西九龍文化區戲曲中心英文譯名的爭議,性質上也有雷同之處。很多人認為「中國戲曲」譯作Chinese opera已是定名,亦方便外國人明白,卻未必知道opera與戲曲是相似、卻非完全相同的概念。有些人堅持譯音作xiqu,就是希望藉此改變以外國概念來定義中國傳統文化的慣例--即文化研究學所謂的「話語權」,打破西方在世界各類文化論述上的壟斷。也許有人會說他們不自量力,大概是吧,但他們的看法並非一無是處,值得深思。他們的理據是:既然中國功夫可以直接音譯作Chinese kungfu而非Chinese martial arts,「海嘯」的英文更直接採用日文譯音tsunami,證明外國人亦願意認識和接受外來文化的概念和用語,為甚麼戲曲的英文名稱不可以音譯?這涉及語文、翻譯、社會心理等互相影響的因素,理應詳細討論,尋求最廣為認可的譯名。可是香港傳媒和某些人卻以政治陰謀論解釋譯名的由來,骨子裡只是為了反對內地政權籌措彈藥,偏離了真正問題所在,卻有許多從來不看戲曲、甚至不知戲曲為何物的傢伙盲從附和,令人既憤怒又痛心。

竊以為崇洋抑華,豈只音樂?為甚麼那麼多人認為看外國電影就是高尚,看粵劇就是老土?為甚麼要待不懂中文的聯合國人員把崑劇列為世界非物質文化遺產之後,那麼多中國人才有興趣去見識一下中國的「百戲之母」到底是啥一回事?為甚麼日本菜、法國菜就是精巧、優雅的象徵,令人趨之若鶩;對烹調、選材同樣可以非常講究的中國菜,卻毫不稀罕?為甚麼同是古文,莎士比亞的劇作就是世界經典(其實這「世界」有誰、沒有誰?),對自己的唐詩、宋詞、元曲卻不屑一顧,避之唯恐不及?歸根究柢,也許是我們至今未能恢復對傳統文化的信心,亦未擺脫十九世紀帝國主義者宣揚「西方先進,東方落伍」的論調。我們在學習西洋科技和學術時,有意無意間把自己祖宗傳下來的事物貶得一文不值,只憑「揚棄或保留」來定奪,卻沒有深思彼此的異同與價值所在,實在幼稚得可憐。從民國的新文化運動到中共的文化大革命,我們丟棄了多少寶貴的傳統、無法還原的文物?由於文化斷層和缺漏無法修補,對傳統有太多無知、誤解和偏見,令我們更難建立自信。所以說,破壞很容易,建設卻艱難。

然而失去傳統根基、失去自我意識的國家,永遠只有被人牽著鼻子走的份兒。既然清末民初以來已經證明全盤西化不可行,抱殘守缺也不見得有甚麼前途。不過,如果慈禧當年認為西方只有「奇技淫巧」是無可救藥的愚昧,現在我們深信西方才是先進高明,自己則是落後無知,非要亦步步趨不可,又算甚麼呢?學習人家的長處之餘,如何把外來的事物與自己固有的融會貫通,減少排斥,或至少不會讓自我嚴重變質,似乎更迫切地需要我們認真思考和探索。《慈禧與德齡》在音樂上的融和與創新,我雖然一時適應不了,亦頗發人深省。

6 comments:

  1. Anonymous11:28 am

    音譯的名詞, 要在外邦的普羅平民中流行, 才會有生命力, 因為用的是他們, 例如「關係"Guanxi"」一詞自動跑出, 根本沒有什麼爭論, 因為是有實質的生活經驗連繫, 有些事勉強不來的

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    1. 那當然。但從推廣、介紹的角度看,音譯無可厚非。怎樣譯才恰當,應該讓有心人詳細討論,不是給反共上腦的傢伙胡亂搞局的戰場。

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    2. Hi 秋盈,

      Will 'Xiqu' be adopted by the English-speaking world? As you reckon, it is an issue of 'cultural hegemony'. If they feel like it, obviously they will take it on board. They have taken on 'Quanxi', with eyebrows raised and tongue in cheek though.

      'Quanxi' is a mild, or unreserved depending on how you take it, attack on cronyism and collusion in Chinese society. The Eng-speaking world takes those as 'Chinese' thing, and no Eng word (like 'connection') can exhaust the nuances.

      The West is thus more than happy to use the word to tease China.

      Xiqu? No, they will flick it away. Instead of jumping at the use of it, they jump on it, ripping it as 'un-pronounciable'.

      Am I pro-West or pro-East? Let me put it this way....I see the intrinsicality of Xiqu that really calls for a special term for it. The pin-yin version is a better choice than Chinese opera, which glosses over so much subtlety of the Chinese art.

      On the other hand, the modern Chinese society is rife with so many problems that ...well I am ashamed to come to its defence.

      Jeffrey

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    3. Thank you for your sharing. Although I have some reservations over the phonetic translation of "xiqu", I can see where some of those who support this came from. Cultural hegemony or disguised discrimination aside, it does cause some trouble for non-Chinese speakers to pronounce the term.
      For your comment on modern Chinese society, we all know too well its problems and the absence of hope. Although I tend to discern as much as I can what politics can/should do and what not, I fully appreciate the difficulty to do so, and this is precisely what continues to breed contempt and discrimination even among our fellow countrymen and women.

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  2. Anonymous9:04 pm

    As someone pointed out, Chinese traditional theatres, or Chinese traditional theatre arts would be a neutral and more accurate translation. Theatre is an umbrella term that include all kinds of stage arts.

    The problem with Putonghua pinyin is, they are indeed hard for foreigner to guess the pronunciation. During Republic of China, Wade-Giles phonetics are much more commonly used. In that case, 戲曲 would be Hsi-chü, which at least look easier to guess the pronunciation for European-language speaking people.

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    1. I agree that "Chinese traditional theatre" is more accurate and neutral. "Chinese opera" inclines towards convenience for non-Chinese speakers and "xiqu" is simply a phonetic translation. I have scribbled something a couple of months ago on this subject, but I didn't know the debate is still dragging on.

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